Google translate translation Russische wiki:
On his return to Santo Domingo de Laurence Graff received official authorization to forgive him killing Van Doorn and major destination island of Santo Domingo, with the request to settle on the island of the police service. Later, he was appointed “Lieutenant King,” was involved in 1699 in the expedition d’Ibervillya Pierre , who founded New Orleans , where de Graaff and ended his existence.
(* d’Ibervillea levert hits op met biloxi? Toch Mississippi?)
“Endless tours” maakt er dit van:
Laurencillo died in 1704, but there are two contenders for where this occurred. Some say that he passed away quietly at home in Cap François; others reported that he was involved in creating a French Colony in what is now Biloxi, Mississippi, and it was there where he died.
Wikipedia weet het zeker!(*):
Laurens Cornelis Boudewijn de Graaf (Dordrecht, 1653 – Cap-Français, Saint-Domingue, 24 mei 1704)
(* In de enige genoemde bron (Kapers en piraten – Ronald Prud’homme van Reine, Januareeks, HD Uitgevers, Hilversum, blz. 87-91), komt cap-Francais niet voor? Sterker nog, ook daar wordt beschreven dat Laurens eindigt als vroege amerikaanse pionier met een franse expeditie. Maar dan weer in Louisiana Canada??)
Lawrence De Graff in zijn jeugd.
(Uitstekend portret olie)
Lawrence De Graff – filibuster Dutch nationality. I note that his name is not of noble origin and should not be written with the particle “de”. Laurence Graff served first the Spanish, and later became the husband of the famous Breton hunter-God-pleasing bukanira Mary, widow of Pierre Long, founder obviously Port-au-Prince to Santo Domingo. Here is how this brave pirate Ekskvemelin:
“Captain Lawrence – tall, but not stooping, his face is beautiful, but without any feminine hair – light golden, but not red, and his main pride – Spanish mustache kind that go to him more than anyone in the world . We never knew a better gunner, with the muzzle pointing the gun at the target, he always accurately calculates the point you have to hit its core, as well as his bullet fired from a gun. captain – a man bold, quick and decisive. conceived thing, organize it and do – it is obligatory for him three points of any operation. dangers it not frightening, but it is always too impatient and hot. Otherwise, he has a great technique of fighting with the Spaniards, he is well aware of them, as long as a young man was among them.
Lawrence always carries with him into the sea violin and trumpet, playing he loves to entertain yourself and others who prefer this method of relaxation in between fights. He clearly stands out filibusters his manners and good taste. In the end, he was so famous, that as soon as it becomes aware of his arrival at a port, then immediately come running from all sides people to see with their own eyes that he was as an ordinary person, like them.
What distinguishes it from the other still is the fact that he served for a long time the Spaniards at sea, even when fighting against the very filibusters, to which he now belongs. If he went on to serve them, it would have spared them a lot of trouble and loss, and of further developments, in general, you can not predict anything. Lawrence actually had time to visit the islands of Santo Domingo, Tortuga and Jamaica and, after many battles, which brought him a large number of prisoners, he was captured himself. Being among people, the price of which he knew not once experienced the quality of their fighting, Lawrence decided to stay with them, and now fight with the Spaniards even more fiercely than the French, which he had previously taken prisoner himself. He had lots of time to learn the cunning and cruelty of his former bosses, and now he was eager to find a way to punish them. “
The most brilliant operation carried out by Lawrence (not including his participation in expeditions to Campeche and Veracruz, which are discussed later), is considered his miraculous rescue of the two most powerful shestidesyatipushechnyh Spanish ships which had on board 1,500 people, one of whom was the admiral’s galleon and the other – vice-admiral.
Seeing too late, with whom he is dealing, Captain Lawrence could not escape. Giving the order to blow up his ship, if fully it will be clear that the game is up, he ventured to pass between the two galleons under enemy fire from 120 guns, randomly, but the intensity of firing at the Spanish guns and cannons on both sides so that the enemy gunners could not could accurately aim.
As a result of a frenzied firefight Lawrence himself was knocked down by a blow core zadevshim it on the decline, but with the words “It’s okay,” got up quickly and went to the gun, which he brought to the target. From the first shot, he shot down a large tower of the flagship; frightened vice captain of the flagship not dare to go on board the ship, despite the huge numerical superiority.
This scandalous story has become known not only in the New World, but also in Europe. Spanish court could prevent the 1500 folded before a miserable hulk filibuster, for whose head, especially, was a reward. Then head indecisive vice-captain of the flagship under the executioner’s ax fell. Lawrence, on the contrary, after this successful maneuver earned him great fame and a big name.
Another time, when he was ambushed near Cartagena with captains Miguel, Zhonke, Lesage and Brouage, he was surrounded by three Spanish warships that have on board more than 800 people, and 80 guns, Lawrence took the admiral ship of 38 guns, and took over the vice Zhonke -admiral. After this adventure, having a beautiful ship, Lawrence, Miguel and Brouage joined forces.
Here I would like to say a few words about Captain Miguel and Brouage, although separate pages dedicated to them – too much credit for such small fry, most smugglers than hardcore pirates. For some reason, they worked together all the time, anyway apart in the chronicles I’ve never met.
The two men are known to us only in connection with the joint actions with Laurence de Graff and after the next event, which sheds light on an important point: the difficulty to distinguish, as in modern warfare, these “neutral” from false dealing contraband of war.
Odnazhny they are lucky to take two Dutch trading ship. During the inspection, the two ships they did not find anything worth mentioning. Captains were really going to leave the ship, when he found the little slave, who was sitting in the hold. He gave them the secret: these two ships brought from Cartagena cargo – 200,000 crowns of gold and silver, which they have to deliver in this way to Spain, as well as a bishop. And gold was well hidden among the hold trash.
Miguel ordered to deliver the goods and the bishop – for which it is possible to get a ransom of 50,000 crowns – on board his ship. It should be noted that they did a very noble, not taking yourself ships “Neutral”, which at the time was an ordinary thing. But gold was found and given by our “friends”, but because the captains of the Dutch courts have expressed their displeasure.
- Really? – Replied to this Miguel. – All right! I agree to fight one against the two of you – and the captain Brouage will watch our fight. But if I go out a winner, I am going to master not only of Spanish money, but two of your ships.
Both the Dutch prefer to leave money and filibusters prelate and hastily withdrew. But it so happened that Brouage, losing the mast in an unequal struggle with the wind, had to make a stop on the island of St. Thomas. On this island lived Danes, but the king has just become a member of the electorate of Brandenburg. German governor immediately released prelate without compensation, and Brouage in exchange for his “good will” sell the necessary materials for the construction of new towers for all the gold that was found in addition to the ship. Not a bad deal: Brouage lost everything, but he remained at large, and the German governor of the great profited from the deal, pre-sold several logs for a tidy sum. Truly, it is expensive egg to Christ Day!
But back to Lawrence De Graff. He was lucky to take over without firing a shot ship with 14 guns, loaded with quinine and 47 pounds (23 kg) of pure gold! It is interesting to write about corsair chronicler of the patent:
“Before we do anything about it, he departed, accompanied by a hundred people on the coast of Santo Domingo, to force the governor to leave such a wonderful production at the disposal of filibusters and update its patent, whose term had expired.
Incidentally should note here that although the filibusters and hit the road in order to persuade the governor to leave them captured gold, but this was done only for formality, since often they managed the production immediately after its capture. They analyze how valuable to them all battle trophies, after the assessment of values they leave, at best, a share of the spoils for the governor, as if he himself was present among them, and then share the rest. If it so happens that filibusters were not engaged in no delay before arriving at the place of their base, their captain leaves the ship and sent to the governor with a report on the operation and size of the captured prey. He tells him that all the captured values are battle trophies, obtained during the expedition according to corsair patent. After doing such civilized formality governor analyzes the situation and personally took away about a tenth of the cost of the entire production. “
Lawrence soon joined the pirate de Grammont to jointly attack on Veracruz – a landmark transaction, something even more ambitious than the famous Panamanian adventure Henry Morgan . As I have already described the operation on pages dedicated to de Grammont, here only touch points are directly related to the Captain Lawrence.
Pirates managed to plunder the city, though not as thoroughly as planned: help prevent, quickly caused the Spaniards. It so happened that Lawrence De Graff large quarreled with another marcher Dutch pirate Van Doorn . Motive was trivial quarrel slander, easy chatter of an Englishman of no one had seen “a leather suitcase, decorated with arabesques,” where Van Doorn allegedly folded his personal production, the rights to which were challenged Lawrence De Graff. A fight broke out, which resulted in de Graaff mortal wound inflicted Van Doorn. Meanwhile, the Spanish arrived in time and help the pirates quickly retreated.
Having gone through on the way back some unpleasant adventures Lawrence de Graaff and Grammont parted with rather sharp expressions as Grammont accused of killing Lawrence Van Doorn.
After several independent two successful raids were again in Jamaica. Why in Jamaica? For Laurence de Graff, obviously, because after his fight with Van Doorne, he did not dare to return to Santo Domingo, where he went only much later.
In 1685, Laurence Graff de Grammont with again spoke against the Spanish in order to plunder Campeche, a newly almost the same strength as in the attack on Veracruz. Although this time they met with fierce resistance, they were able to succeed.
On their return they were again divided and Lawrence went to an independent expedition, but on the way, was attacked by three ships with 50 guns on board. His own ship was captured along with the entire production, but, unfortunately, he himself, when he was seriously wounded, managed to escape and return to Santo Domingo. Here he healed a long time their strength. This was found to … de Grammont. At what time they have decided to hold a joint expedition, but in one of the sea battles Grammont was killed.
On his return to Santo Domingo de Laurence Graff received official authorization to forgive him killing Van Doorn (after strict investigation) and the appointment of Major island of Santo Domingo, with the request to settle on the island of the police service. Later, he was appointed “Lieutenant King,” was involved in 1699 in the expedition d’Ibervillya Pierre, who founded New Orleans, where de Graaff and ended his existence.
That could only be d’Iberville, Biloxi, Mississippi?